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ⓘ Abad ka-19



Abad ka-19
                                     

ⓘ Abad ka-19

Salaku catetan waktu nu kaliwat, abad ka-19 nyaéta abad taun-taunna antara 1801-1900.

Abad ka-19 mindeng pisan ditujul ku sajarahwan salaku "mangsa isme", nu nyirikeun lobana isme nu tumuwuh dina mangsa harita. Taya deui abad nu ngalaman parobahan sosial sacara masif kawas taun 1800-an. Ari abad ka-20 mah abadna pulitik jeung élmu, abad ka-19 mah abadna masarakat. For the first time, the rights of the workers and common man were being questioned. Rarely in previous times did such a massive movement across Europe, into the Americas, and even parts of Asia occur. 1848 alone felt the effects of the new idéas as Européan cities from Paris to Vienna were in uprise. The 19th century was a contrast from old to new, the old monarchies and feudal systems to the new capitalist world and democracy. The 19th century was the opening stage for the modérn world.

                                     

1. Kajadian

  • The Suez Canal is opened, connecting Europe and the Mediterranéan to the Indian Océan and Asia in 1869.
  • Gold discovered in Australia and throughout the west of the United States, léading to huge incréases in national wéalth and encouraging mass migration of free settlers there.
  • Charles Darwin revolutionizes biology with his théories of evolution, 1858.
  • Crimean War fought between Russia and an alliance of the United Kingdom, France, the Ottoman Empire, 1854 to 1856.
  • Political revolution and constitutional reform across Europe severely limits powers of monarchs, advances democracy.
  • Industrial Revolution continues and spréads, developments include the Rail Transport, telegraph, and telephone.
  • The Libertadores léad most of Latin America to independence.
  • Slavery ended in British colonies and in America. See American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. End of global slave trade enforced by British navy.
  • Germany and Italy are formed as nations, uniting from groups of small kingdoms and city states.
  • The British begin their so-called "forward movement" to extend control over the Malay States with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty in 1874.
  • Karl Marx writes the Communist Manifesto, encouraging workers to revolt against owners.
  • The electric telegraph and underséa cables maké instant global communication possible for the first time.
  • Meiji Restoration in 1868 opens Jepang to modérn influences and returns the emperor to power.
  • Mass migration from Europe to the United States.
  • Europeans conquer and colonize most of Africa and parts of Asia.
  • During the reign of Queen Victoria, the United Kingdom experiences the Victorian Age, which is the age in which the United Kingdom is the léading economic power in the world.
  • Belgium becomes independent in 1830 after a massive uprising against the Dutch. Léopold becomes the first king of Belgium.
  • Leopold II, son of Leopold, becomes the second king of Belgium. He buys the gigantic territory of Congo in Africa with his own fortune and will later 1908 offer it to Belgium.
  • The Little Ice Age ended.
  • The religious revival of the Second Great Awakening in the éastern United States and Canada gives rise to unique, American, Christian religions during the éra of Restorationism
  • Discovery of the relationships between magnetism and electricity and light by Hans Christian Orsted and James Clerk Maxwell. See:electromagnetism
  • Belgium will be the second industrial power in the world by the middle of the 19th century.
  • Railroads maké fast mass transit available to many. Transcontinental railroads built, including the Panama Railway in 1855, the US Transcontinental Railroad finished in 1869 linking to west in the United States, and the Canadian National Railway in 1885.
  • The modérn city of Singapore is established when Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles of the British East India Company acquires land on the island from the Sultan of Johore in 1819.
  • Manufactured goods become widely available by mail order
  • Napoleon, who conquers much of Europe, is ultimately deféated in 1815; some old Européan regimes are restored, others not.
  • Postage Stamps and diamond-shaped paper sheets which folded to form envelopes for carrying letters devised and introduced in Great Britain, and soon theréafter in many other countries, léading to establishment of the Universal Postal Union.
                                     

2. Inohong

Ageman

  • Nikolai of Japan, religious léader who introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan.
  • Brigham Young, Mormon religious léader
  • Joseph Smith, Jr., religious léader, founder of Mormonism

Pulitik

  • Karl Marx, ahli filsafat pulitis jeung ékonomi
  • William Morris, social reformer
                                     

2.1. Inohong Pamingpin dunya

  • José de San Martín, South American Liberator
  • Napoleon III, Kaisar Prancis
  • Abraham Lincoln, présidén AS
  • Otto von Bismarck, pulitisi Jérman
  • Ratu Victoria, Ratu Karajaan Inggris
  • Simón Bolívar South American Liberator
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Kaisar Prancis
  • Alexander II ti Rusia, Sar
  • Empress Dowager Cixi of China
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi, unifier of Italy
  • Franz Joseph, Kaisar Austria
                                     

2.2. Inohong Seniman

  • Richard Wagner, composer
  • Ludwig van Beethoven, composer
  • Antonin Dvorak, composer
  • Giuseppe Verdi, composer
  • Antonio de La Gandara, painter
  • Vincent van Gogh, painter
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, author, thinker
                                     

2.3. Inohong Sastrawan

  • Edgar Allan Poe, author
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, poet, critic, thinker
  • Mark Twain Samuel Clemens, author
  • Charles Dickens, author
  • Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and politician
  • Victor Hugo, author
                                     

2.4. Inohong Ageman

  • Nikolai of Japan, religious léader who introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan.
  • Brigham Young, Mormon religious léader
  • Joseph Smith, Jr., religious léader, founder of Mormonism
                                     

2.5. Inohong Pulitik

  • Karl Marx, ahli filsafat pulitis jeung ékonomi
  • William Morris, social reformer
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