Back

ⓘ Mara



Mara
                                     

ⓘ Mara

Mara ngaran ilmiahna nyaéta Macaranga tanarius Mull. Arg. Ngaran séjénna dina bahasa Indonesia sareng Ambon nyaéta hanuwa. Ari bahasa Jawana nyaéta tutup ancur. Hirup ngarungkun loba kapanggih di leuweung sekunder. Kaina hipu, kelirna bodas méh teubisa dimangpaatkeu pikeun parabot sumawona bahan bangunan. Daun jeung buahna ngahasilkeun tanin; kawas geutah, baheula dimangpaatken pikeun ubar tradisional.

                                     

1. Ngaran daérah

Tangkal mara mibanda ngaran daérah, saperti, sapè Mink.; mara, mara beureum, mara bodas, mara leutik Sd.; tutup ancur, tutup ijo, tutup sruwa Jw.

                                     

2. Tempat Sumebar

Tatangkalan ieu sumebar di Andaman jeung Nicobar, sareng ti Indochina ka Cina, Taiwan, pulau Ryukyu, Thailand, sakuliah wewengkon Malaysia, ka Australia kaler jeung Melanesia.

Macaranga triloba nyebar lega ti mimiti Semenanjung Malaya kaasup dijerona wilayah Thailand, Sumatra kaasup Bangka, Jawa, nepi ka Filipina Palawan, Sulu; ngan henteu kapanggih di pulo Kalimantan.

Kai kesed ieu kagolongkeun kana tutuwuhan pionir anu ngeusian leuweung sekunder ; tangkal tumuwuhna mimiti ti landeuh nepika tonggoh kurang leuwih 1.400 m dpl. Mara hirup dina rupa-rupa kaayaan habitat, kaasup dina leuweung dipterokarpa taneuh garing, sisi-sisi leuweung rawa, jeung ogé mangrupa salah sahiji tina saeutik mara anu bisa hirup dina leuweung anu usum-usum mindeng kahalodoan.

M. triloba kagolong kana mara anu bisa simbiosis mutualisme jeung sireum; dina ieu kaayaan sireum-sireum tina marga Crematogaster subg. Decacrema. tutuwuhan ieu nyadiakeun lolongkrang di jero régangna, disebut domatia, anu bisa dipaké nyumput ku sireum. sagigireun ti éta, M. triloba ogé ngahasilkeun hiji substansi anu mibanda nutrisi dipikawanoh: food body pikeun kahakanan sireum; ilaharna diproduksi dina sisi daun salumpit/ penumpu anu melengkung. Ie ogé ngadatangkeun kauntungan pikeun tangkal mara dina nyingkahkeun hama jeung herbivor alatan ayana sireum-sireum anu ngagembrong, dina waktuna baris milu nyerang ka singsaha waé anu ngaganggu kana tangkal anu dicicinganna.

                                     

3. Kagunaan

Pikeun framing lampu, molding, kasus packing, outriggers pikeun canoes. Ogé dipaké ubar tradisional, babakan dipaké pikeun disentri jeung daun pikeun pewarna.

Mara ngahasilkeun kai anu hampang BJ 0.45; dina kakuatan bisa digolongkeun kana kelas III sarta dina awét dipaké kelas V. Kai mara henteu loba dimangpaatekun; paling-paling dipaké suluh jeung turus pepelakan,

Mara ngahasilkeun geutah gom kawas resin anu cepel ieu bisa dimangpaatekun pikeun nyieun lém, sarta tanin. Heyne dumasar catetan nu aya baheula di Bogor,cai godogan daun jeung buah mara beureum ieu dipaké pikeun ngubaran murus; meureun alatan lobana zat penyamak anu dipibanda. Panalungtikan sababaraha taun katukang dipikanyaho yén daun mara mibanda kimia anu dipercaya bisa nyingkahan kanker.

                                     

4. Tempo ogé

  • Smith, W. 1903. Macaranga triloba: a new myrmecophilous plant". New Phytologist 2 4-5: 79-82, fig. 1-13.
  • Fiala, B., & U. Maschwitz. 1991. "Extrafloral nectaries in the genus Macaranga Euphorbiaceae in Malaysia: comparative studies of their possible significance as predispositions for myrmecophytism". Botanical Journal of The Linnean Society, vol. 44 4: 287-305. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1991.tb00621.x abstrak
  • Prabawa, SB. 2002. "Some physical and mechanical properties of glue laminated mahang wood Macaranga triloba". abstrak pada AGRIS, FAO
  • Davies, SJ., SKY. Lum, R. Chan, & LK. Wang. 2001. "Evolution of myrmecophytism in Western Malesian Macaranga Euphorbiaceae". Evolution, 55 8: 1542-59. DOI: 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2001.tb00674.x. abstrak
  • Fiala, B., & U. Maschwitz. 1992. "Food bodies and their significance for obligate ant-association in the tree genus Macaranga Euphorbiaceae". Botanical Journal of The Linnean Society, vol. 110 1: 61-75. DOI. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1992.tb00416.x abstrak
  • Fiala, B., U. Maschwitz, & Y-P. Tha. 1991. "The association between Macaranga trees and ants in southeast Asia". in E.R. Huxley & D.F. Cutler Eds. Ant-Plant Interactions: 263–70. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  • Baker, J.A. 1934. "Notes on the biology of Macaranga spp." Gardens Bulletin, Straits Settlement vol. VIII 1: 63-8, pl. XI-XV.
Free and no ads
no need to download or install

Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

online intellectual game →