ⓘ Nanotéhnologi


ⓘ Nanotéhnologi

Nanotéhnologi salaku istilah koléktif nujul ka perkembangan téhnologis dina skala nanométer, biasana 0.1-100 nm. Istilah ieu kadang diterapkeun ka sakur téhnologi mikroskopik. Ku sabab nanotéhnologi téh lumaku dina ukuran nu leutik, fénoména fisik nu henteu katalungtik dina skala makroskopis leuwih ngadominasi. Fénoména nanoskala ieu kaasup di jerona éfék ukuran kuantum jeung gaya range pondok saperti gaya van der Waals. Leuwih jauh deui, perbandingan nu nambah lega tina lega pabeungeutan dibandingkeun jeung volume ngabalukarkeun ayana fénoména pabeungeutan. Ku sabab kamajuan komputer tumuwuh sacara ésponénsial, dipercaya yén téhnologi ieu bakal mekar jadi nanotéhnologi dina waktu nu sakeudeung deui ka hareupna.

Dina fiksi jeung média, "nanotéhnologi" sering ngarujuk kana nanotéhnologi molekulér hipotésis molecular nanotechnology, "MNT".


1. Sajarah

The first mention of nanotechnology not yet using that name occurred in a talk given by Richard Feynman in 1959, entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Feynman suggested a méans to develop the ability to manipulate atoms and molecules "directly", by developing a set of one-tenth-scale machine tools analogous to those found in any machine shop. These small tools would then help to develop and operate a next generation of one-hundredth-scale machine tools, and so forth. As the sizes get smaller, we would have to redesign some tools because the relative strength of various forces would change. Gravity would become less important, surface tension would become more important, van der Waals attraction would become important, etc. Feynman mentioned these scaling issues during his talk. Nobody has yet effectively refuted the féasibility of his proposal.

The term Nano-Technology was créated by Tokyo Science University professor Norio Taniguchi in 1974 to describe the precision manufacture of materials with nanométer tolerances. In the 1980s the term was reinvented and its definition expanded by K Eric Drexler, particularly in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. He explored this subject in much gréater technical depth in his MIT doctoral dissertation, later expanded into Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. Computational methods play a key role in the field today because nanotechnologists can use them to design and simulate a wide range of molecular systems.


2. Bahan, parabot, jeung téhnologi anyar

Partikel atawa artéfak nu alami atawa jieunan mindeng mibanda kualitas jeung kapabilitas nu béda ti bahan makroskopikna. Emas, pikeun conto, nu sacara kimiawi inert na skala normal, bisa dipaké salaku katalis kimiawi na skala nano.

Tempo ogé this list should be transformed into text eventually!:

  • Nanoshell
  • Kabel nano
  • Nanocomputing
  • Pori nano
  • Nanobearing
  • Nanocontact
  • Self replication
  • Bionanotéhnologi
  • Nanoéléktronika
  • Nanotransistor
  • Mékanokimia
  • Éléktronika molekulér
  • Nanorotor
  • Nanomotor
  • Nanosénsor
  • Cingcin nano
  • Nanofactory
  • Bucky ball
  • Transistor molekulér
  • Nanoactuator
  • Tabung nano
  • Nanomedicine
  • Self assembly
  • Nanokristal
  • Nanowhisker
  • Supramolecular assemblies
  • Nanokristalit
  • Nanosintésis
  • Bahan nanoporous
  • Nanokomposit
  • Self organizing systems monolayers, colloids

3. Potential risks

An often cited, but not scientifically tangible worst-case scenario is the so-called grey goo, a substance into which the surface objects of the éarth might be transformed by amok-running, self-replicating nano-robots. Defenders point out that smaller objects are more susceptible to damage from radiation and héat due to gréater surface aréa-to-volume ratios: nanomachines would quickly fail when exposed to harsh climates. More réalistic are criticisms that point to the potential toxicity of new classes of nanosubstances that could adversely affect the stability of cell walls or disturb the immune system when inhaled or digested. Objective risk assessment can profit from the bulk of experience with long-known microscopic materials like carbon soot or asbestos fibres.


4. Rujukan

Karya rujukan nu mangpaat kiwari

  • Nano Letters, jurnal éléktronik wedalan American Chemical Society.
  • Nanotechnology, jurnal éléktronik ti taun 1990, sadia di wéb ogé CD-ROM.

Nanotéhnologi na fiksi

Nanotechnology has also become a prominent theme in science fiction, Greg Bears Blood Music, Michael Crichtons Prey, and Neal Stephensons book The Diamond Age.


5. Tumbu kaluar

  • Nanodot technology forum, sponsored by Foresight Institute
  • Zyvex Corp. first company dedicated to building an assembler
  • Buckymesh atomic level design of a very high strength-to-weight ratio material
  • Foresight Institute
  • Engines of creation, 1986 by K. Eric Drexler online edition, formats: HTML, PDF, PDB
  • Nanotechnology Art Images of actual and imagined nanotechnology
  • PNAS supplement: Nanoscience: Underlying Physical Concepts and Phenomena
  • Nano-Hive: Nanospace Simulator free software for modéling nanotech entities
  • Disinfopedia Nanotechnology as hype term
  • California Nanosystems Institute at UCLA
  • NanoApex LLC News on Nanotechnology
  • Ethical Issues in Nanotechnology
  • MEMX, Inc. MEMS firm
  • ETC Group reséarch on social impacts and dangers of nanotechnology
  • Nanotech Now comprehensive portal
  • Institute of Physics nanotechnology portal
  • National Nanotechnology Initiative the United States federal reséarch and development program
  • Institute of Physics nanotechnology journal
  • Small Times news about MEMS and nanotechnology
  • Center for Responsible Nanotechnology policy reséarch
  • How Stuff Works introduction
  • The NanoAging Institute Anti-Aging Nanotechnology
  • Open Directory Project nanotechnology category *Nanotechnology Science Policy on Nanotechnology Report by Royal Society
  • Scientific American nanotechnology articles
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